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The text was hosted on wikipedia, made by Prof P Thareja, in 2007-8

Total Quality Management (n.)

1 The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.

Total quality management (TQM) is a management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions (marketing, finance, design, engineering, and production, customer service, etc.) to focus on meeting customer needs and organizational objectives [1].

TQM empowers the Total organization, from the employee to the CEO, with the responsibility of ensuring Quality in their respective products and services, and Management of their processes through the appropriate process improvement channels. All types of organizations have deployed TQM, from small businesses to government agencies like NASA [2], from schools to construction firms, from manufacturing centers to call centers, and from dance sequence [3] to hospitals. TQM is not specific to one type of enterprise, it is a philosophy applied anywhere quality is required.


* 1 A Tool For Progress
* 2 TQM is a Strategy
* 3 Implementation of TQM
* 4 Seven Tools of Quality
* 5 Costs
* 6 Possible lifecycle
* 7 Thareja’s Implementation Model
* 8 References

A Tool For Progress

TQM aims to go beyond “Meeting customer requirements” and their usual understanding of “Fit for purpose” with respect to products, processes or services that are embraced by the organization. TQM should operate throughout an entire organization. Prior to TQM, quality testing is usually a norm towards controlling quality during the final phases of a product, process or service. If faults are found, then the supplies are held back; reworked or rejected. Additional costs were usually inevitable, to produce the needed quantity and Quality. TQM’s aim to “Get it right first time every time” and in interim abate majority of such avoidable costs.

TQM seeks to identify the source of each defect; to prevent it from entering the final product. Using a simple iterative process TQM reinforces quality assurance to meet changes in products and services by way of improved effectiveness of their operational processes[4]. The modus-operandi involves identifying the “root causes” for the most prevalent/costly defects and then implementing solutions to abate, avoid or remove them.

TQM was a term transformed from Japanese policy of ‘Total Quality Control’… which was an epilogue to quality assurance. It has since graduated to a new paradigm.

Today TQM is applied to all industries, business, and activities. Be it a Hotel or a Hospital. Be it ‘Educational Institution’ or ‘Engineering Enterprise’. Be it a Paan (Beetle leaves in Hindi language) Shop or a Park (play-garden). Be it an Advocate’s office or Aircraft maintenance or a consultancy organization.

The tool is generic, and terminal to trials (Supreme).{these are individual views of Priyavrat Thareja} Terminal because of the fact that TQM is ‘Total’ and ultimate. Good TQM (implementation) takes responsibility of Systems in place which must work endogenously [5].

TQM is a Strategy

TQM essentially is a people dependent process. If people are cultured, matured is the organization. To derive full benefit of TQM, people in any organization should be synergized.[6] Thus organizations are expected to maintain a company wide strategy that devolves responsibility to every employee for the quality of their work and the work of their team. TQM calls for bringing the core concept of quality to early transformatory processes, as Quality Guru W. Edwards Deming proposed.[7] Deming’s chain reaction advocates starting with Quality of initial design and further systemically operating on Total Quality principles to achieve excellence. When each input from raw materials through resources and design is processed to produce exceedingly and continually improved finished goods, TQM is said to be operational.

Implementation of TQM

To improve any organization, activities are deployed for all of the objectives, namely:

1. Continual quality improvement (CQI)
2. Total customer satisfaction
3. Total employee involvement
4. Integrated process management
5. Holistic Approach to processes

Some steps to success are:

(a) TQM Tools The popular terms are Seven QC tools and Seven PC tools.

The Tools are used for Generating Ideas: Check Sheet, Scatter Diagram, Cause and Effect Diagram,
The Tools for Identifying Problems: Histogram, Statistical Process Control Chart, and
The Tools to Organize the Data: Pareto Charts, Flow Charts (Process Diagram)
The Tools to control processes: Affinity Diagrams, Matrix Charts, Process Display Program charts,
The Tools to control projects: Program Evaluation Review Techniques (PERT), Critical Path Method (CPM).

(b) Quality Management system (QMS) per ISO 9001:2008

(c) Working on a continuous improvement model.

Seven Tools of Quality

While use of TQM methodologies reduce the cost of failure e.g. scrap; factory (re-work) and customer dissatisfaction; it may, unavoidably, add new costs for staff training, educating suppliers etc. However, net benefit of implementing TQM is in the quality, brand value, decreased time to market, higher customer confidence and return, and harmony, as is provided in an orchestra. Above all it facilitates sustainable development faster [8]. It is asserted that business enterprises are always confronted with the challenge of increasing shareholder value, which includes both Quality and profits.

Possible lifecycle

Today, total quality management is common in modern business, with a big accent on education, industry, army and so on. Many colleges are offering courses in TQM at graduate and undergraduate levels.

Abrahamson (1996) argued that fashionable management discourse such as quality circles tends to follow a lifecycle in the form of a bell curve, indicating a possible management fad. TQM normally takes a long 10 year period to administer change. It will take many years to mature. The decline is generally a result of commitment lacking at top management level.[9]

American businesses have been noticing the Japanese improve their market share, assigned to Quality management. Quality control costs money, and gives due advantage at a cost. Americans organizations who have adapted TQM concepts since the 1980s have demonstrated its potential for excellence. With the efforts becoming more standardized and applied around things like the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Europe’s EFQM Excellence Award and Japanese Internationally awarded Deming Prize in brief. There are several winners of this Deming Application Quality prize, and some of these have contributed to Quality through Energy conservation, environmental upgradation, signifying service to society,[10] which is quite essential for any TQM implementer. Also benefit ISO 9000 series standard’s implementation and Six Sigma in a journey to TQM.

Thareja’s AUM Model for TQM [11]

Each Journey of 1000 miles starts with a single step
Just orient the implementing people with a firm goal. A determined step and well begun is half done. Educate, train, and keep the motivation. The need is to Align, align and align[11,12].

Once, rightly initiated, the implementer will be automatically enabled (say, the process is in control) to enhance competencies worthy of sustaining the motivation and success. ‘Utilise’ the available stimulus to culmination[12].

The final step is a metamorphosis of the person[12]. It is the most difficult step. After all the TQM implementation is a People governed process.


1. ^
2. ^
3. ^, also
Alignment to the Bull: A Total Quality Organization Thru’ People …
4. ^ Thareja, Priyavrat, Demean a Bad-Bad Result. Quality World, Vol. 6, No. 8, pp. 32-35, August 2009 . Download Demean a Bad-Bad ResultAvailable at SSRN: go to SSRN page
5. ^ Thareja Priyavrat, (2007),‘Teams, Traits And Tasks [QT3] For Total Quality’, Quality World, Vol V, April 2007
6. ^ Thareja, Priyavrat, Each One is Capable (Part 16 of A Total Quality Organisation Thru’ People). FOUNDRY, Journal For Progressive Metal Casters, Vol. 20, No. 4, July/Aug, 2008. Download Each One is CapableAvailable at SSRN:
7. ^ Deming,W E.: Out of the Crisis. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1986
8. ^ * German Federal Ministry for the Environment and Federation of German Industries (Eds.); Schaltegger, S.; Herzig, C.; Kleiber, O. & Müller, J.: Sustainability Management in Business Enterprises. Concepts and Instruments for Sustainable Development. Berlin/Lueneburg: BMU/Centre for Sustainability Management (CSM), 2003 CSM Lüneburg (2,26 MB)
9. ^ Thareja, Priyavrat, The Declining Karma to Bad Results. Quality World, Vol. 6, No. 9, Sept. 2009 Download The Declining Karma to Bad Results Available at SSRN:
10. ^ Thareja, Priyavrat, Let Each Child Be Titled Deming - D(R)E(A)Ming for a Quality World (Part 4) (November, 09 2009). Quality World, Vol VI, No. 8, Aug 2008. Available at SSRN: (accessed 20/10/08)
Download Let Each Child Be Titled Deming
11. ^ Thareja P, (2007), ‘Manufacturing Ordeal And Challenges To Energy-Environment-Society Infrastructure’, Journal of Education in Engineering and Technology, Vol 1 No 1 Jan-June 07, National Institute of Technical Teacher Training and Research, Chandigarh
12. ^ Thareja Priyavrat, Sharma D.D, Mahapatra P.B, “Total Quality Management - A Developmental Perspective”, Journal of Production Research & Management Volume 1, Issue 1, February, 2011, Pages pp 34-52.

* Bhat, V.: Total Quality Environmental Management. An ISO 14000 Approach. Westport, CT: Quorum, 1998
* GEMI (Global Environmental Management Aman Mohamed Initiative): Total Quality Environmental Management. The Primer. Washington D.C.: GEMI, 1993
* Thareja, Priyavrat and Mukul Chhabra :Strategic Total Quality Management (TQM) in a Group Dance 2009 (March). Quality World, Vol. 4, No. 3, March 2009. Available at SSRN:

The page hosted on wikipedia was made by Prof P Thareja, in 2007-8, and placed here as a backup/ or referencing me -too.

- Posted on April 28th, 2012 in Pages, Teaching Page, Education, Engineering, Publications, Free Stuff | 3,497 Views |

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